Методичка для ИУ1 часть 1



Московский государственный технический университет имени Н.Э. Баумана

И.В. Цайтлер, Г.П. Курчаткина

Обучение чтению литературы

на английском языке по специальности

«Системы автоматического управления»

Учебно-методическое пособиеМосква

Издательство МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана

2006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

УДК 802.0 ББК81.2Англ-923 Ц12

Рецензенты: СЮ. Бабанова, Ю.М, Козлов

Цайтлер И.В., Курчаткина Г.П.
Ц12   Обучение чтению литературы на английском языке по специ

альности «Системы автоматического управления»: Учеб.-метод. пособие. — М.: Изд-во МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, 2006. 34 с: ил.

В пособие включены оригинальные тексты на английском языке по истории, теории и практике автоматического управления, комплекс лек-сико-грамматических упражнений, задания на развитие навыков устной речи.

Для студентов III курса, обучающихся по специальности «Системы автоматического управления».

УДК 802.0

ББК 81.2 Англ-923

Учебное издание

Ирина Владимировна Цайтлер Галина Павловна Курчаткина

Обучение чтению литературы

на английском языке по специальности

«Системы автоматического управления»

Редактор Н.М. Маслова

Корректор М.А. Василевская

Компьютерная верстка КВ. Зимакова

Подписано в печать 18.10.2006. Формат 60×84/16. Бумага офсетная. Печ. л. 2,25. Усл. печ. л. 2,15. Уч.-изд. л. 2,05. Тираж 200 экз. Изд№ 85. Заказ 19

Издательство МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана. 105005, Москва, 2-я Бауманская, 5.


ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Основу пособия составляют оригинальные тексты на англий­ском языке (в отдельных случаях незначительно адаптированные) по истории, теории и практике автоматического управления.

Пособие состоит из трех тематических разделов, включающих помимо текстов по специальности задания, позволяющие провести лексико-грамматический анализ этих текстов, понять их содержа­ние и сделать квалифицированный перевод на русский язык.

Выполняя задания, студенты закрепляют вводимый языковой материал в результате многократного повторения и использования его в речевой деятельности.

В конце каждого раздела помещен активный словарь, в кото­ром даны специальные термины и общеупотребительная лексика, необходимая для перевода текстов.

Овладев необходимыми знаниями, студенты и выпускники смогут получать нужную им информацию, знакомясь с научно-технической литературой на английском языке, и вести беседы с иностранными коллегами по соответствующей проблематике.

Пособие предназначено для студентов Ш курса, обучающихся по специальности «Системы автоматического управления».

 

© МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, 2006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UNIT1

TASK 1. Read and translate the text. Name the steps in the history of a feedback system.

TEXT 1A. History of Automatic Control (Part I)

The use of feedback in order to control a system has had a fascinat­ing history. The first applications of feedback control rest in the devel­opment of float regulator mechanisms in Greece in the period 300 to 1 B.C. The water clock of Ktesibios used a float regulator. An oil lamp devised by Philon in approximately 250 B.C. used a float regulator for maintaining a constant level of fuel oil. Heron of Alexandria, who lived in the first century A.D., published a book entitled Pneumatica, which outlined several forms of water-level mechanisms using float regulators.

The first feedback system to be invented in modern Europe was the temperature regulator of Cornelis Drebbel (1572-1633) of Holland. Denis Papin (1647-1712) invented the first pressure regulator for steam boilers in 1681. Papin’s pressure regulator was a form of safety regu­lator similar to a pressure-cooker valve.

The first automatic feedback controller used in an industrial process is generally agreed to be James Watt’s flyball governor developed in 1769 for controlling the speed of a steam engine. The all-mechanical device measured the speed of the output shaft and utilized the move­ment of the flyball with speed to control the valve and therefore the amount of steam entering the engine. As the speed increases, the ball weights rise and move away from the shaft axis thus closing the valve. The flyweights require power from the engine in order to turn and therefore make the speed measurement less accurate.

The first historical feedback system claimed by Russia is the water-level float regulator said to have been invented by I. Polzunov in 1765. The float detects the water level and controls the valve that covers the water inlet in the boiler.

The period preceding 1868 was characterized by the development of automatic control systems by intuitive invention. Efforts to increase the accuracy of the control system led to slower attenuation of the tran­sient oscillations and even to unstable systems. It then became impera­tive to develop a theory of automatic control.

J.C. Maxwell formulated a mathematical theory related to control theory using a differential equation model of a governor. Maxwell’s


study was concerned with the effect various system parameters had on the system performance. During the same period, LA. Vyshnegradskii formulated a mathematical theory of regulators.

Prior to World War II, control theory and practice developed in the United States of America and Western Europe in a different manner than in Russia and Eastern Europe. One main impetus for the use of feedback in the United States was the development of the telephone system and the electronic feedback amplifiers by Bode, Nyquist, and the Bell Telephone Laboratories. The frequency domain was used pri­marily to describe the operation of the feedback amplifiers in terms of bandwidth and other frequency variables. In contrast, the eminent mathematicians and applied mechanicians in Russia inspired and domi­nated the field of control theory. Therefore, Russian theory tended to utilize a time-domain formulation using differential equations.

A large impetus to the theory and practice of automatic control occurred during World War П when it became necessary to design and construct automatic airplane pilots, gun-positioning systems, radar antenna control systems, and other military systems based on the feedback control ap­proach. The complexity and expected performance of these military sys­tems necessitated an extension of the available control techniques and fos­tered interest in control systems and the development of new insights and methods. Prior to 1940, for most cases, the design of control systems was an art involving a trial-and-error approach. During the decade of the 1940s, mathematical and analytical methods increased in number and utility, and control engineering became an engineering discipline in its own right.

TASK 2. Read and translate the following words:

fascinating, mechanism, century, temperature, valve, measurement, intuitive, oscillation, equation, frequency, discipline.

TASK 3. Complete the chart and translate the words.

 

Verb

Noun

to apply

 

 

regulator

to require

 

to measure

 

 

performance

to amplify

 

 

extension

to install

 

 

 

 

4


5

 

TASK 4. A. Make adverbs from the following adjectives:

approximate, general, accurate, different, eminent, particular, fre­quent, rapid, former, simultaneous. B. Compose sentences with them.

TASK 5. Find in the text a word that has the same or a similar meaning to the following:

amazing, device, to invent, permanent, rate, motor, to demand, pre­cise, necessary, to connect, prominent.

TASK 6. Say what significance the following names have in relation to the development of control systems.

Ktesibios, Heron of Alexandria, Cornells Drebbel, Denis Papin, James Watt, I. Polzunov, J.C. Maxwell, LA. Vyshnegradskii, Bode.

TASK 7. Say what these dates in the text refer to.

300 B.C., 250 B.C., 1572, 1712, 1769, 1765, 1868, 1940.

TASK 8. Find in the text English equivalents for the following word combinations and use them in sentences of your own:

увлекательная история; постоянный уровень; паровой котел; менее точный; период, предшествующий… ; появилась настоя­тельная необходимость; ширина полосы (частот); выдающиеся ма­тематики.

TASK 9. Compose sentences with the following expressions from the text (in written form) and exchange your notebooks with your group-mates for further translation.

In order to, similar to, therefore, thus, even, in terms of, further­more, due to, prior to, in contrast, especially.

TASK 10. Translate the following participle phrases into Russian.

1. Radar antenna control systems designed during World War II were based on…

2. A mathematical model for a governor control of a steam engine formulated by J.C. Maxwell became…

3. Mechanized assembly machine introduced by Henry Ford was soon…

4. Feedback amplifiers analyzed by H.W. Bode were used…

5. A method for analyzing the stability of systems developed by H. Nyquist increased


TASK 11. Find attributive participle phrases in the text and translate them.

TASK 12. Translate the following word groups into English:

иллюстрированный научный журнал; статья, написанная не­знакомым автором; имя, широко известное в научных кругах; текст, переведенный с ошибками.

TASK 13. Look at the expression from the text: trial-and-error approach.

In English there are many fixed pairs of words joined by a conjunc­tion «and». Translate some of them and compose sentences of your own.

Now and again, up and down, safe and sound, sick and tired, law and order, wait and see, ins and outs, odds and ends.

TASK 14. Read and translate the text.

TEXT IB. History of Automatic Control (Part П)

Frequency-domain techniques continued to dominate the field of control following World War II with the increased use of the Laplace transform and the complex frequency plane. During the 1950s, the em­phasis in control engineering theory was on the development and use of the s-plane methods and, particularly, the root locus approach. Fur­thermore, during the 1980s, the utilization of digital computers for control components became routine. These new controlling elements possessed an ability to calculate rapidly and accurately that was for­merly not available to the control engineer. There are now over ninety thousand digital process control computers installed in the United States. These computers are employed especially for process control systems in which many variables are measured and controlled simulta­neously by the computer.

With the advent of Sputnik and the space age, another new impetus was imparted to control engineering. It became necessary to design complex, highly accurate control systems for missiles and space probes. Furthermore, the necessity to minimize the weight of satellites and to control them very accurately has spawned the important field of opti­mal control. Due to these requirements, the time-domain methods due to Liapunov, Minorsky, and others have met with great interest in the last decade. New theories of optimal control have been developed by L.S. Pontryagin in Russia and R. Bellman in the United States. It now appears that control engineering must consider both the time-domain

 

 

 

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and the frequency domain approaches simultaneously in the analysis and design of control systems. 7

TASK 15. Ask questions using question-words «who» or «what». Example: The time-domain methods are due to Liapunov and Minorsky. Who are the time-domain methods due to?

1. New theories of optimal control are due to L.S. Pontryagin.

2. New impetus is due to the advent of Sputnik.

3. The discrepancy is due to many reasons.

4. The temperature regulator was due to Cornelius Drebbel.

5. This discovery is due more or less to pure accident.

TASK 16. Recast the following sentences using the expression «to be due to».

Example: The first pressure regulator was invented by Dennis Papin. The first pressure regulator was due to Dennis Papin.

1. The establishment of these facts resulted from a long period of experimental research.

2. The complexity of the problem brought forth some misunder­standing.

3. The development of digital computers leads to rapid advances in control engineering.

4. The complexity of military systems causes an extension of the available control techniques.

5. The increasing interest in achieving optimum performance fostered the development of new insights and methods.

TASK 17. Insert «due to « or «to be due to «.

1. The errors... careless analysis.

2. The flyball governor... James Watt.

3. The problem could be solved... very careful investigations.

1. The failures of the experiment… absence of necessary equip­ment.

2. This invention… Heron of Alexandria.

TASK 18. Paraphrase the sentences below using the expressions «to be famous for», «to be distinguished for», «to be known for». Example: Columbus discovered America.

Columbus is famous for his discovery of America.

1. L.S. Pontryagin developed the theory of optimal control.

2.1. Polzunov invented the water-level float regulator.


3. J.Z. Maxwell formulated a mathematical theory related to control theory.

4. Philon devised an oil lamp.

5. Henry Ford introduced mechanized assembly machine for auto­mobile production.

TASK P. Paraphrase the sentences below according to the example. Example To my mind, the text is very interesting. I find the text very interesting.

1. To my mind, the experiment is very important.

2. To my mind, the idea is rather complicated.

3. To my mind, the data are accurate.

4. To my mind, this invention is very helpful.

TASK 20. Describe Watt’s flyball governor work using Fig. 1 and the work of г water-level float regulator using Fig. 2.

О

Fig. 1. Watt’s flyball governor   Fig. 2. Water-level float regulator

TASK «A. Look at the list of the selected historical developments of control systems, translate it and ask questions using the question word «who «.

1769 Jams Watt’s steam engine and governor developed. The Watt steam engine is often used to mark the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain. During the industrial revolution, great

 

 

 

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9

 

strides were made in the development of mechanization, a technology preceding automation.

1800 Eli Whitney’s concept of interchangeable parts manufacturing dem­onstrated in the production of muskets. Whitney’s development is often considered as the beginning of mass production.

1868 J.C. Maxwell formulates a mathematical model for a governor con­trol of a steam engine.

1913 Henry Ford’s mechanized assembly machine introduced for auto­mobile production.

1927 H.W. Bode analyzes feedback amplifiers.

1932 H. Nyquist develops a method for analyzing the stability of systems.

1952 Numerical control (NC) developed at Massachusetts Institute of technology for control of machine-tool axes.

1954 George Devol develops «programmed article transfer» considered to be the first industrial robot design.

1960 First Unimate robot introduced, based on Devol’s designs. Unimate installed in 1961 for tending die-casting machines.

TASK 22. Enlarge the list using the facts from Texts A and B.

TASK 23. Speak about the history of automatic control.

TASK 24. Translate the text with a dictionary.

TEXT 1С. Control systems

Control systems are combinations of components (electrical, me­chanical, thermal, or hydraulic) that act together to maintain actual system performance close to a desired set of performance specifica­tions. Open-loop control systems (e.g., automatic toasters and alarm clocks) are those in which the output has no effect on the input (Fig. 1).

 

 

Fig. 1. An open-loop control system 10


Closed-loop control systems (e.g., thermostats, engine governors, automotive cruise-control systems, and automatic tuning control cir­cuits) are those in which the output has an effect on the input in such a way as to maintain the desired output value (Fig. 2).

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 2. A closed-loop control system

A closed-loop system includes some way to measure its output to sense changes so that corrective action can be taken. The speed with which a simple closed-loop control system moves to correct its output is described by its damping ratio and natural frequency. A system with a small damping ratio is characterized by overshooting the desired out­put before settling down. Systems with larger damping ratios do not overshoot the desired output, but respond more slowly.

A minute for rest

Who is a scientist? One who, consuming midnight oil in studies diligent* and slow, teaches himself, with painful toil** the things that other people know.

Last things first

Solutions to problems

are easy to find:

The problem’s a great contribution.

What is truly an art

is to wring*** from your mind

a problem to fit a solution.

* diligent — прилежный, старательный **toil — тяжелый труд. ***to wringвытаскивать, выуживать.

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Essential Vocabulary

Accurate adj точный attenuation nуменьшение, затухание, ослабление bandwidth n ширина полосы частот

closedloop control systemсистема управления с обратной связью control systemсистема управления damping ratioкоэффициент затухания devise vизобретать, придумывать differential equationдифференциальное уравнение domain побласть, сфера

electronic feedback amplifierусилитель с обратной связью emphasis пвыразительность, акцент fascinating adj увлекательный feedback controlрегулирование с обратной связью float п поплавок

flyball governor — центробежный регулятор

foster v — поощрять, благоприятствовать

imperative adj — необходимый, насущный

impetus п — побудительная сила, толчок, стимул input п – вход

insight ппонимание

in terms ofс точки зрения; на языке; в терминах

openloop control system — система управления без обратной связи output п — выход

performance п — действие, функционирование; работа; рабочие ха­рактеристики

root locus approach — метод корневого годографа simultaneously adv одновременно spawn v — порождать, вызывать что-либо

transient oscillations — неустановившиеся колебания

trialanderror approach — метод проб и ошибок unstable system — неустойчивая система variable ппеременная величина


UNIT 2

TASK 1. Read and translate the text. Be ready to give definitions to such concepts as «automation « and «productivity «.

TEXT 1A. Control Engineering Practice

Control engineering is concerned with the analysis and design of goal-oriented systems. Therefore the mechanization of goal-oriented policies has grown into a hierarchy of goal-oriented systems. Modern control theory is concerned with systems with the self-organizing, adaptive, robust, learning and optimum qualities. This interest has aroused even greater excitement among control engineers.

The control of an industrial process (manufacturing, production, and so on) by automatic rather than human means is often called «automation». Automation is prevalent in the chemical, electric power, paper, automobile, and steel industries, among others. The concept of automation is central to our industrial society. Automatic machines are used to increase the production of a plant per worker in order to offset rising wages and inflationary costs. Thus industries are concerned with the productivity per worker of their plant. «Productivity» is defined as the ratio of physical output to physical input. In this case we are referring to labour productivity, which is real output per hour of work. For example, in a study conducted by the US Commerce Department it was determined that labour produc­tivity grew at an average annual rate of 2,8 % from 1988 to 2004. In order to continue these productivity gains, expenditures for factory automation are expected to rise from 5 billion dollars in 1998 to 8 bil­lion dollars in 2014. The US manufacturers currently supply approxi­mately one-half of world-wide control equipment. The transformation of the US labour force in the country’s brief history follows the pro­gressive mechanization of work that attended the evolution of the agrarian republic into an industrial world power.

The easing of human labour by technology, a process that began in prehistory, is entering a new stage. The acceleration in the pace of technological innovations inaugurated by the Industrial Revolution has until recently resulted mainly in the displacement of human muscle power from the tasks of production. The current revolution in computer

 

 

 

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technology is causing an equally momentous social change: the exten­sion of information gathering and information processing as computers extend the reach of human brain.

Control systems are used to achieve 1) increased productivity and 2) improved performance of a device or system. Automation is used to improve productivity and obtain high quality products. Automation is the automatic operation or control of a process, device or system. We utilize automatic control of machines and processes to produce a prod­uct within specified tolerances.

The term «automation» first became popular in the automobile in­dustry. Transfer lines were coupled with automatic machine tools to create long machinery lines that could produce engine parts, such as the cylinder block, virtually without operator intervention. In body-parts manufacturing, automatic-feed mechanisms were coupled with high speed stamping presses to increase productivity in sheet-metal forming. In many other areas where designs were relatively stable, such as radiator production, entire automated lines replaced manual operations.

With the demand for flexible, custom production emerging in the 1990s, a need for flexible automation and robots is growing.

There are about 150,000 control engineers in the United States and also in Japan, and over 100, 000 control engineers in Russia. The theo­ry, practice and application of automatic control is a large, exciting, and extremely useful engineering discipline. One can readily understand the motivation for a study of modern control systems.

TASK 2. Read and translate the following words:

hierarchy [‘haiara:ki], ratio [‘reijisu], expenditure, surface, acceler­ation, virtually, entire, emerging, extremely.

TASK3. Complete the chart and translate the words.

A.

 

Verb

Adjective

to adapt

to excite

inflationary

productive

to create

14


B.

Verb

Noun

concern

to refer

determination

to expect

supplement

evolution

to replace

TASK 4. Find in the text a word that has the opposite meaning to the following:

out-of-date, to decrease, falling, to finish, long, regressive, com­plexity, partly, permanent, useless.

TASK 5. A. Translate the following word combinations:

goal-oriented system, rising wages and inflationary costs, average annual rate, productivity gains, world-wide control equipment, easing of human labour, pace of technological innovations, displacement of human muscle power, specified tolerances, entire automatic lines. B. Compose sentences with them.

TASK 6. Complete each sentence with the most appropriate ending.

A.   to increase the production of
a plant per worker.

B.   is entering a new stage.

C.   a need for flexible automa­
tion and robotics is growing.

1. The mechanization of goal-oriented policies.

2. Automatic machines are used

3. To continue these productivity gains, expenditures for factory automation

4. The easing of human labour

 

5. Transfer lines were coupled with automatic machine tools

6. With the demand for flexible, custom production

D.   has grown into a hierarchy of
goal-oriented control systems.

E. to create long machinery
lines.

F. are expected to rise.

TASK 7. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the un­derlined words.

1. Moreover, computers and software have changed the way engi­neering design is done.

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2. Despite the seemingly obvious requirement of control systems, it was only in the early 1980s that control researchers developed mathematical techniques to cope with the problem.

3. The approach in these latter formulas is mathematical rather than graphical.

4. It must be kept in mind that a control engineer’s role is not merely one of designing control systems for fixed plants.

5. For this reason it is important that a theory of feedback not only lead to designs but also indicate directly when the performance objec­tives cannot be met.

TASK 8. Translate the sentences with the infinitive as an adverbial modifier of purpose (чтобы). Remember that in this function the in­finitive can be introduced by «in order» or «so as» (formal style).

1. To deal with the problem perfectly, we must investigate it thor­oughly.

2. In order to define the concept «productivity» we should know the difference between physical output and physical input.

3. So as to enlarge the number of control engineers, universities stress the importance of this useful engineering discipline.

4. The article was written to formulate a precise problem of the theory of feedback control system design.

TASK 9. Find in the text the sentences with the infinitive as an adver­bial modifier of purpose and translate them.

TASK 10. The infinitive can be also used as an adverbial modifier of

result with «too» (слишком) and «enough» (достаточно). Combine

two sentences into one according to the example.

Example A: The results are reliable. They can be published in the

proceedings.

The results are reliable enough to be published in the proceedings.

1. The idea is clear. It can be formulated exactly.

2. The phenomenon occurs very often. It can be observed.

3. The method is good. It can be used in practice.

4. The conclusions are quite reasonable. They account for the above data.

5. The point is quite trivial. It needn’t be mentioned.

Example B: The idea is not quite clear. It can’t be formulated exactly. The idea is too unclear to be formulated exactly.


1. The measurements are not accurate. They do not contribute the necessary information.

2. The classification is not simple. It can’t be used in practice.

3. The research is not done carefully. It has no practical application.

4. The task is not easy. It can’t be done without some preliminary work.

TASK 11. Make the following sentences negative using the verb «to fail» + infinitive.

Example. He succeeded in obtaining new data. He failed to obtain new data. 1.1 managed to complete my work in time.

2. The latest data didn’t confirm the previous ones.

3. We couldn’t increase expenditures for factory automation.

2. We couldn’t improve the figures of acceleration which were not stable at that moment.

TASK 11. Read and translate the text.

TEXT 2B. Examples of Modern Control Systems

Feedback control is a fundamental fact of modern industry and so­ciety. Driving an automobile is a pleasant task when the auto responds rapidly to the driver’s commands. Many cars have power steering and brakes, which utilize hydraulic amplifiers for amplification of the force to the brakes or the steering wheel. The desired course is compared with a measurement of the actual course in order to generate a measure of the error. This measurement is obtained by visual and tactile (body movement) feedback. There is an additional feedback from the feel of the steering wheel by the hand (sensor). This feedback system is a fa­miliar version of the steering control system in an ocean liner or the flight controls in a large airplane. All these systems operate in a closed-loop sequence. The actual and the desired outputs are compared, and a measure of the difference is used to drive the power amplifier. The power amplifier causes the actuator to modulate the process in order to reduce tie error. The sequence is such that if the ship, for instance, is heading incorrectly to the right, the rudder is actuated in order to direct the ship to the left. If the output is subtracted from the input and the difference is used as the input signal to the power amplifier the system is called negative feedback control system. Feedback systems are not always negative feedback systems in nature. Economic inflation, which is evidenced by continually rising prices, is a positive feedback system.

 

 

 

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A positive feedback control system adds the feedback signal to the in­put signal, and the resulting signal is used as the input to the process.

Other familiar control systems have the same basic elements. A re­frigerator has a temperature setting or desired temperature, a thermostat to measure the actual temperature and the error, and a compressor mo­tor for power amplification. Other examples in the home are the oven, the furnace and the water heater. In industry, there are speed controls, process temperature and pressure controls, position, thickness, compo­sition, and quality controls among many others.

Automation is often used for processes that were previously ope­rated by humans. When automated, the process can operate without human assistance or interference. In fact, most automated systems are capable of performing their functions with greater accuracy and preci­sion, and in less time, than humans are able to do.

TASK 13. Read and translate the following text and ask questions be­ginning «What…?», «How…?», «Where…?», «In what way…?», «Whatfor…?», «When…?»

A robot is a computer controlled machine and is a technology closely associated with automation. Industrial robotics can be defined as a particular field of automation in which the automated machine (i.e. the robot) is designed to substitute for human labour. To do this, robots possess certain human-like characteristics. Today, the most common human-like characteristic is a mechanical manipulator that is patterned somewhat after the human arm and wrist. We recognize that the auto­matic machine is well suited to some tasks, while often tasks are best carried out by humans.

Fig. 1. The work of a manual control system for regulating the level of fluid 18

TASK 14. Describe the work of a manual control system for regulating the level of fluid using Fig. 1.


TASK 15. Compose sentences with some of the words from the text «Examples of Modern Control Systems « and exchange your notebooks with your group-mates for further translation:

to obtain, to be familiar with, to compare, to cause, to reduce, human assistance, to be capable of, accuracy and precision.

TASK 16. React to the following statements and questions using the verb «to obtain «. Mind: «to obtain « means to get something by making effort (to obtain data, evidence, information, knowledge, result, de­gree). Example: You obtained valuable information, didn’t you?

Yes, I’m glad to tell you, I succeeded in obtaining impor­tant information.

1. I hear you obtained some convincing experimental evidence to prove your hypothesis.

2. When did you obtain your degree?

3.1 suppose you obtained a lot of experience through your work. 4.1 hope the results obtained by you will help you to proceed with your work.

TASK 17. Translate the sentences using the verbs «to advise» or «to consult». Mind: you consult your scientific adviser; he advises some­thing to you.

1. Я должен посоветоваться со своим руководителем.

2. Кто посоветовал вам использовать этот метод?

3. Мой руководитель советовал мне использовать другой под­ход к решению этой проблемы.

4. Они не советовались со мной.

5. Я советую вам проверить свои данные еще раз.

TASK 18. Speak about feedback control, the desired course of an automobile, closed-loop sequence, a thermostat, water heater, indus­trial robotics, beginning with the introductory phrases: further study proves, careful research demonstrates, thorough study confirms, extensive investigations make it clear, numerous experiments suggest, detailed analysis shows.

TASK 19. Be ready to speak about any example of a modern control system.

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TASK 20. Translate the text without a dictionary.

TEXT 2C. Automation

Automation is automatic operation and control of machinery or pro­cesses by devices, such as robots that can make and execute decisions without human intervention. The principal feature of such devices is their use of self-correcting control systems that employ feedback, i.e., they use part of their output to control their input. Once the automated process is set up, human participation in the manufacturing process in­volves little more than maintenance and repair of the equipment. In a typical automated manufacturing process, the feeding in of materials, the machine operation, the transfers from one machine to another, the final assembly, the removal, and the packing are all done automatically. In some automated manufacturing, a single robot with interchangeable tool heads performs all of the various manufacturing assignments. At various stages in the operation are inspection devices that reject sub­standard products and adjust the machinery to correct any malfunction. Since electronic computers are able to store, select, record, and present data systematically, they are widely used to direct automated systems. Automation is applied in industry to the manufacture of foodstuffs, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and electronic equipment, and is used in steel mills, automobile plants, and coal mines. Another application is its use in the launching, aiming, and guidance of military rockets. Auto­mation has also been applied to information handling, resulting in automatically prepared bills and reports and the solution of many engi­neering problems. It offers high quality products together with great savings in costs.

A minute for rest

Originality Original thought

is a straightforward process. It’s easy enough

when you know what to do. You simply combine

in appropriate doses the blatantly false

and the perfectly true.


Thrift Nobody can be lucky all the time; so when your luck deserts you in some fashion don’t think you’ve been abandoned in your prime but rather that you are saving up your ration.

Essential Vocabulary

adaptive systemадаптивная система

add v — прибавлять, складывать

arouse v — вызывать, возбуждать

automation nавтоматизация

bituminous adj битумный, битуминозный

control engineeringтехника автоматического управления

determine vопределять

displacement nвытеснение

easing n — облегчение, ослабление

error n ошибка; отклонение от заданной величины

excitement п — возбуждение; интерес

expenditures пзатраты

gain п — рост, увеличение; коэффициент усиления

goaloriented systemцелевая система